Substance P

Substance P is neuropeptide involved in pain and transmission. It belongs to the tachykinin family. It is widely distributed throughout the nervous system of human and animal species. Nerve cells communicate with one another through neurotransmitters. Substance P is one of the neurotransmitter. Substance P is a protein found in the brain and spinal cord, and is associated with some inflammatory processes in the joints. Substance P gives of the pain feeling. Substance P is also involved in some physiologic activities. These activities include the vommiting reflex, defensive behavior, and smooth muscle contraction.
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People with Fibromyalgia may have higher than normal levels of substance p in the spinal cord which can cause pain signals to be transmitted to the brain from levels that were never injured, and increase overall pain sensitivity in all parts of the body.

Fibromyalgia that has recently been defined, but not recently discovered. Many physicians prefer not to deal with patients who possess this complicated disorder and question its existence. Fibromyalgia is now recognized as one of the many central pain related syndroms that are common in the general population. Recent advances have lead to the conclusion that disturbances within the central nervous system known as central sensitization represent the most likely source. It is characterized by aches and pains, chronic fatigue, and nonrestorative sleep. People with fibromyalgia experience severe pain with a normal stimulus. The main causes of fibromyalgia are still unknown, but dopamine and serotonin are mentioned as possibly being involved. Substance P is a tachykinin, a peptide that has biological activity as a pain inducer. Studies have indicated that patients with fibromyalgia ahev elevated levels of Substance P in the serum, soft tissues, spinal fluid, and urine.


Enkephalins are the smallest pentapeptides that deal with regulation of pain in the body. These pentapeptides are found in the thalamus of the brain and in certain parts of the spinal cord that send out pain impulses throughout the body. The in the spinal cord hinder the feeling of pain by reacting with the receptor sites that are located on the sensory nerve endings. These nerve endings in the spinal cord and the adrenal medulla release the enkephalins. The enkephalins bind to the opiet receptor sites and cause small amounts of pain to be released because the feeling of pain is vital to human survival but too much pain can be overbearing and miserable. Enkephalins can act as seditives and effect a person's motivation and the way that they act. Enkephalins are natural pentapeptides in the body that give of a morphine like feeling.Picture_1.png Picture by:


Opiates, such as morphine, codeine, methadone, heroine, and others enhance the abilty to inhibit pain and streangthen the pian killing effects of enkephalins. The opiates bind to the sensory receptors at the sensory nerve endings and hinder pain impulses. Medications such as morphine are prescribed by doctors for patients with severe pain from broken bones, bad car accidents, or other serious injuries. These medications create a sense of relaxation and well being. However there are many serious risks associated with taking opiates.
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Opiates are highly addictive. The more often that a person uses opiates the larger amount they need to take to get the same pain relieving effect on their body. This is because when opiates are used often it reduces the sensitivity of the opiate receptors and produces a tolerance. Eventually this might lead to an overdose of the prescribed drug because to much of it was taken at one period of time. An opiate addict may face withdraw sympyoms when they are trying to quit using the pain relieving drug. They may experience agitation, stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, the chills, sweating, a runny nose and other uncomfortable symptoms.heroin-addict.jpg picture by


Endorphins are neurotransmitters that activate opiate receptors. external image endorphins.jpgThey can be found in more than twenty different parts in the body, such as the pituitary glands as well as in many parts of the brain and nervous system. It is most commonly said that endorphins are released when the body encounters any sort of stress or pain. When this occurs endorphins filter throughout our body and act as a drug to help reduce the pain or stress that is occurring. But, unlike many drugs, the opiate that is released from endorphins is not addictive. During severe pain the endorphins in our body cause and analgesic effect to occur, to lessen the pain that is inflicting our body. But during stress, endorphins act differently. They are released in the limbic system which reduces the extent of anxiety that our body is feeling. Not only does the opiate cause the pain to decrease it also causes the feelings of euphoria to occur as well as the release of many sex hormones. Athletes also produce high levels of endorphins. They get a "runners high" when the athlete has done a very hard and strenuous exercise. Picture By:

Role of Food and Other Activities

Roles of endorphins and other external image Chocolate.jpghormones released in the body have been debated by scientist for many years. But the one conclusion that they have come up with is that endorphins do for a fact increase when an athlete has done continuous exercise. But if we look closer we can see that endorphins do vary among different people. Different thing that cause endorphins, may not necessarily secret the same among from one person to the next. This means that two people who do the same activity, whether physically or mentally may not have the same number of endorphins flowing through their body. But in looking at how the role of food plays an effect on the amount of endorphins in the body you can clearly see just how people may eat to relieve stress. An example of this would when a person eats chocolate they usually feel better in a sense that relieves stress. This is because chocolate has a certain degree of endorphins that are in its ingredients. Picture By:

Ways to Increase Endorphins in Your Body

But for those who do not have a strong desire to do strenuous activity to increase endorphins in the body, there are many other ways that may help. Methods such as massages, acupuncture, meditation and sexual activity external image aquaterre_spa.jpgall can increase endorphins in the body. These allow those with disabilities or motivation to experience the peace fo mind in which endorphins bring. Different people may experience different results. But evidence has proven that endorphins do relieve pain or stress. No matter if you think you need them or not, they are in our body to help us and helping us do they do. Our body can feel when something needs to be done and endorphins is a way in which we can feel the amazing results. No matter what we put our body through, we all must remember that it will always protect, save, and endure itself as long as it can withstand. Picture By: